Leaf-hoppers are small flying insects, about a centimeter across their wing span, They vary in color from varying shades of green to grays. Like Aphids they suck plant juices causing stress, lack of vigor, fruit drop and in bad infestations, death of the host plant. They are also known to be carriers of some plant pathogens / diseases.
The key aspect of managing leafhopper infestations is to detect them before it becomes too difficult to deal with. Plant inspection is one detection method.
Another method is to use Yellow Sticky Traps, placed slightly above crop height
Recommended Pesticide Control For Leaf Hoppers is Pyrethins which Controls leaf hoppers, as well as many other insects.
In mild infestations Insecticidal soap or Neem will suffice.
Aphids are Yellowish-pink to pale green plant lice, like leaf hoppers, they suck plant juices. They are a soft-bodied, oval/pear shaped insect and are commonly found on nearly all varieties of plants, vegetables, field crops, and fruit trees. Rotenone, insecticidal soap, neem oil - basically the same aresenal used aginst leaf hoppers will also work on aphids. See the full article on aphids
Leaf Miners are any insect that lays its eggs in the spongy layer between the upper and lower surfaces of leaves. The vast majority of leaf-mining insects are moths and flies, some beetles and wasps also exhibit this behavior. A few mining insects utilize other parts of a plant, such as the surface of a fruit. Various varieties attack various plants, There are over 200 species of leaf miners.
Leafminers make small tunnels in the leaves of plants. Other symptoms include discoloration of the leaves. Try out an organic pesticide such as Neem to treat the problem, it has proven effective in suppressing leaf miner infestations.
See Full Article on Leaf Miners
leave tiny yellow to brown speckles on the leaves. The vines wilt. Try using a wooden board to trap the bugs. The bugs will accumulate under the board and can be easily trapped and 'squashed" - No, that's not why they are called Squash Bugs , they feed on Yellow summer squash, winter squashes, as well pumpkins, cucumbers and melons.
Late season or fall feeding of Squash bugs is generally not serious. Early detection of nymphs however is vital, as adult squash bugs are difficult to kill.
Remove and kill both nymphs and adults by dropping them into a pail of soapy water. This is effective if only a few plants are affected. They hide under leaves and move quickly when disturbed. Crush any eggs that are attached to the undersides and stems of leaves. Remove plant debris around the garden during the growing season to reduce the potential harborages where squash bugs may hide. Clean up cucurbit debris and other plant matter around the garden at seasons end to reduce the number of overwintering sites.
Insecticides are normally not required to manage squash bugs.
See full article on Squash Bugs
There are over 1200 known species of whiteflies. These tiny, insects feed in large numbers on leaf undersides by sucking out plant juices. They secrete a sticky substance called honeydew that may cause the growth of a sooty black fungus, and also attracts other insect pests. Yellowing leaves are also symptomatic. White flies are visible to the naked eye and will swarm in large groups when the plant is shaken.
They cause serious injury to the plants by sucking juices from them, causing leaves to yellow, shrivel, and drop.
Vacuum whiteflies early in the morning when they are still cold and sluggish. This removes adults before they have a chance to reproduce. They can be controlled using the same products as those employed against aphids if an infestation becomes severe. See Full Article on Whiteflies
There are two different forms of this pest. Striped and It's cousin the spotted cucumber beetle (A/K/A southern corn rootworm) is basically identical except that it features a dozen black spots instead of stripes.
Whether spotted or striped, both are the same size and the same, greenish-yellow color, and both dine on a wide variety of cucumber and related vegetables as well as various ornamental plants (roses and dahlias for dessert)
Neem disrupts insects hormonal balance so they die before they molt to the next life stage.
It suppresses some insects desire to feed and also repels in areas that have been sprayed.
These diverse modes of action result in broad spectrum control of the majority of insects that harm your yard and garden. Neem spares many beneficial insects such as honey bees and Lady Bugs that prey on undesirable insects.
Azatin or Azadirachtin, extract of the Neem seed, prevents the larvae from developing normally and is also a good alternative for later larval stages. These products degenerate rapidly in nature and need to be reapplied frequently.
Bacillius thuringiensis[Bt] is highly effective against the larvae stage, and only the larval stage, it should be applied as soon as the larvae are first noticed or suspected. Prematurely treating with Bt will diminish much of its value as more eggs hatch. Larger larvae, just before pupating not as easily controlled with Bt.
See Full Article on Cucumber Beetles
Nematodes are microscopic worms that infect plants and cause swelling on the roots and stems, and small knots on the roots . When infected, the plants will wilt, produce very poorly - if at all, and frequently die.
The most damaging nematodes are root-knot nematodes, they are pests of nearly all plants and are fairly widespread.
Damage can be observed by examining the roots, nematode activity produces knot-like swellings on the plants root system.
Nematodes are unable to travel any substantial distance on their own, they are primarily spread by poor garden sanitation. Movement of infested soil and plant matter around the garden. To avert a build-up of nematodes, all garden tools should be sanitized. Once nematodes are present in a garden they can never be eliminated 100%. Infected plants should be destroyed to limit the build-up of nematodes.
Garlic planted among your crops helps to repel nematodes as well as vampires and the opposite sex.
Crop rotation is also helpful in avoiding nematode buildup.
Once infested Predator Nematodes will help to control the populations of parasitic nematodes. Predatory nematodes also referred to as beneficial nematodes will also help to control gypsy moths, cutworms, cucumber beetles and basically any insect that spends early stages of its life cycle in the soil.