Mushrooms can be grown hydroponically, in a very similar fashion to that used for conventional rooting plants.
Mushrooms do not have roots but can still thrive in a soil-less hydroponic media. They actually mature and produce faster than either conventionally cultivated mushrooms or other standard hydroponic crops.
Fungus, which is what a mushroom actually is - does not require expensive grow lights. They do not use photosynthesis to produce sugars or to fruit and they contain no chlorophyll. Fungus feeds on Organic material. Extremely modest amounts of light only trigger a the fungus to bloom into a mushroom.
The basic organic material of a mushroom is "Chitin". Chitin branches off in all directions and becomes "hyphae" and a cluster of Hyphae is known as the Mycellium. The mycelium is the actual fungus from which the mushroom itself sprouts. The mushroom we harvest, its fruit basically, is the reproductive organ of the mycellium.
Substrate - Growing Media - Nutrients
The growing medium must contain the proper nutrients which will be your crops only form of energy. although mushrooms do not produce sugars or carbohydrates, they do need them for development. The best way I have found to provide nutrients is mixing in NON BLEACHED flour with a media of vermiculite and perlite. The vermiculite perlite should be roughly 50-50.